European Union policy instruments with relevance to the Baltic Sea
EU Framework Directives
EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD)
From 2008, the environmental component of the EU Integrated Maritime Policy. It establishes a framework within which the EU member states shall take the necessary measures to achieve or maintain good environmental status (GES) in the marine environment by 2020.
From 2000, commits EU’s Member States to achieve good qualitative and quantitative status of all water bodies (including marine waters up to one nautical mile from the baseline of territorial waters) by 2015.
Both the Marine
Strategy Framework Directive and the Water Framework Directive integrate a
number of other, more specific EU directives issued earlier.
Directives before 2000
Amsterdam Treaty, strengthens previous environmentally orientated declarations, sets environmental policy objectives by explicitly stating, as Community tasks, ‘a high level of protection and improvement of the quality of the environment’.
Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) concerning the protection of waters from pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources.
Directive on Aquaculture Animals and Products (91/67/EEC) aims to increase productivity, introduce health rules, and limit the spread of infections and contagious diseases.
Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), applying to fisheries and aquaculture, focuses on conservation of resources and control of fishing activities, structural measures for adapting and modernizing the sector, market measures and commercial policy and external policy relating to fisheries. In the year 2002 there was a reform made to the CFP (2371/2002/EC)
Directive on Shellfish Growing Waters (79/923/EEC) aims to protect and, where necessary, improve the quality of waters where shellfish grow and to contribute to the high quality of directly edible shellfish products.
Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds (79/409/EEC) establishes special conservation measures to protect habitats of rare or vulnerable species including migrants.
Directive on Dangerous Substances (76/464/EEC) aims to reduce or eliminate pollution from chemicals.
Directive on Bathing Water (76/160/EEC) sets cleanliness standards for bathing water.
Other EU policy instruments
From 2007, focuses on implementing and further developing maritime policies, strategies and cross-cutting policymaking tools; enhancing integrated maritime spatial planning and coastal zone management and further developing and integrating maritime surveillance and monitoring methodologies.
Currently under reform. The green paper issued
by the Commission in 2009 draws a vision of European fisheries of 2020, among
other, by restoring Europe’s fish stocks to maximum sustainable yields (MSY),
and promoting sustainable and more prosperous fishing and aquaculture
EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)
Due to be reformed by 2013. The Commission presented in November 2010 a communication on "The CAP towards 2020", which outlines options for the future CAP. The aim is that, through its response to the new economic, social, environmental, climate-related and technological challenges facing our society, the CAP can contribute more to developing intelligent, sustainable and inclusive growth. One of the main objectives for the future CAP is sustainable management of natural resources in order to enable agriculture to respond to climate change. It calls for sustainable production practices and enhanced provision of environmental public goods, green growth through innovation and climate change mitigation and adaptation actions.
From 2009, aims
to make Baltic Sea region an
environmentally sustainable; prosperous; accessible and attractive; and secure
and safe region. EUSBSR is subdivided into 15 priority areas each implemented
through the flagship projects, and several cross-cutting horizontal actions
e.g. development of integrated maritime governance structures and maritime and
land-based spatial planning.
Adapting to climate change: Towards a European framework for action (2009)
white paper by the EU Commission calling for a strategic approach to ensure
that the adaptation measures to climate change take place timely, efficiently and coherently across
different sectors of economy and levels of governance.